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北京墙绘的含义

北京墙绘的含义

现存史前绘画多为洞窟和摩崖墙壁画,最早的距今已约2万年。中国陕西咸阳秦宫壁画残片,距今有2300年。汉代和魏晋南北朝时期壁画也很繁荣,20世纪以来出土者甚多。唐代形成壁画兴盛期,如敦煌壁画、克孜尔石窟等,为当时墙绘壁画艺术的高峰。宋代以后,墙绘壁画逐渐衰落。1949年后,墙绘壁画得到恢复与发展。1979年北京首都机场墙绘壁画群体完成。之后,不断在一些新建筑中增设壁画,许多作品在艺术表现力、制作技法以及继承传统、借鉴外国经验方面,都有所创新与发展。墙绘壁画以技法区分,有绘画型与绘画工艺型两类;婊椭敢曰婊侄斡绕涫鞘只娣椒ㄖ苯油瓿捎诒诿嫔。

  具体画法有:

 、俑杀诨,在粗泥、细泥、石灰浆处理后的干燥墙面上绘制;

 、谑诨,基底半干时,以清石灰水调和颜料绘制,须一次完成,难度较大;

 、鄣安驶,以蛋黄或蛋清为主要调和剂的水溶颜料,在干壁上作画,不透明、易干、有坚硬感;

 、芾,蜡与颜料混合画在木板或石质上,再加热处理;

 、萦突,画于亚麻布或木板上;

 、薇┗,以丙烯酸为主要调和剂,快干,无光泽,现代壁画常用。以上画法有时混用,或与工艺制作、浮雕结合。

  绘画工艺型是指以工艺制作手段来完成最后效果的壁画。由于手工工艺或现代工艺的制作,加上各种材料的质感、肌理性能,能达到其他绘画手段所不能达到的特殊艺术效果,故被现代壁画广泛采用:

 、俦诘,介于雕刻和墙绘壁画之间,倾向平面化构图,不以体积造型为主,故仍接近壁画,有浅浮雕、深浮雕及阴刻线等手法,材料有石质、水泥、陶瓷、木雕、青铜等;

 、诒诳,用水泥掺和白垩土、石灰、石英砂,再调进颜料,做出壁面,未干时,剥刻出不同色层,做成墙绘壁画;

 、巯馇侗诨,主要以水泥调入粘合剂,有色石子、陶瓷片、有色玻璃、贝壳、珐琅、宝石等颗粒拼嵌而成;

 、芴沾杀诨,便于制作,坚固耐久,有良好的视觉效果,为现代壁画广泛使用的手段。

  另外,还可利用各种工艺制作壁画,如磨漆、漆画、织毯、印染、人造树脂、合成纤维等。现代壁画涉及门类较多,已成为绘画、雕刻、工艺、建筑和现代工业技术等学科间的一种边缘艺术。


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